You are currently viewing 100 Networking Terms Of ServiceNow Discovery & ITOM

100 Networking Terms Of ServiceNow Discovery & ITOM

This post will help you better understand ServiceNow discovery. I provide definitions and examples of essential networking terms that help me know ServiceNow ITOM and discovery.

IP Address

  • Definition: A unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery scans a range of IP addresses to identify active devices within a network.


  • Definition: A logical subdivision of an IP network where all devices can communicate directly with each other without the need for a router.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery allows users to define specific subnets to target during network scans for efficient discovery.


  • Definition: A networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies routers within the network topology to understand traffic flow between network segments.


  • Definition: A networking device that connects devices within a local area network (LAN) and forwards data packets to their intended destination.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery discovers switches to understand the physical connections and interdependencies between network devices.


  • Definition: A security device or software that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects firewall devices and identifies configured rules to understand the network’s security posture.

Load Balancer

  • Definition: A networking device or software that distributes incoming network traffic across multiple servers or resources to optimize performance and reliability.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies load balancers deployed within the network infrastructure to understand how traffic is distributed across servers.

DNS (Domain Name System):

  • Definition: A hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery resolves hostnames to IP addresses using DNS to accurately identify and map network devices.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

  • Definition: A network management protocol used to dynamically assign IP addresses and other network configuration parameters to devices on a network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery collects DHCP lease information to identify dynamically assigned IP addresses within the network.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

  • Definition: An Internet-standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery uses SNMP to retrieve information such as device status, performance metrics, and configuration details from network devices.

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

  • Definition: A logical subdivision of a physical network that allows network administrators to group devices into separate broadcast domains.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery discovers VLAN configurations to understand how network traffic is segmented and managed within the organization.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

  • Definition: The suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the Internet and other computer networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery leverages TCP/IP to communicate with network devices and collect information for CMDB population.

NAT (Network Address Translation)

  • Definition: A method used to modify network address information in IP packet headers while in transit across a traffic routing device.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects NAT configurations to understand how internal network resources are accessed from external networks.

Routing Protocol

  • Definition: A protocol used by routers to determine the best path for forwarding packets between networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies routing protocols such as OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) or BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) to understand network routing behaviors.

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6)

  • Definition: The most recent version of the Internet Protocol, designed to replace IPv4, which provides an expanded address space and other enhancements.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery supports IPv6 addressing to accommodate the growing number of devices connected to modern networks.


  • Definition: A networking device or software that serves as an entry point between two different networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies gateways to understand how traffic is routed between the local network and external networks such as the Internet.


  • Definition: The maximum data transfer rate of a network or Internet connection, typically measured in bits per second (bps) or megabits per second (Mbps).
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery monitors bandwidth usage on network interfaces to identify potential congestion points and optimize network performance.


  • Definition: The time delay between the initiation of a network request and the receipt of the corresponding response.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery measures latency between network devices to assess network performance and identify areas for improvement.


  • Definition: A unit of data transmitted over a network, consisting of a header containing control information and payload containing user data.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery captures and analyzes network packets to troubleshoot connectivity issues and diagnose network problems.

MAC Address (Media Access Control Address)

  • Definition: A unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communication at the data link layer of a network segment.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery retrieves MAC addresses from network devices to uniquely identify and track devices within the network.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

  • Definition: A network protocol used to send error messages and operational information indicating network status or potential problems.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery uses ICMP to perform network diagnostics and assess the reachability of devices within the network.

Routing Table

  • Definition: A data table stored in a router or network device that lists the routes to particular network destinations.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery examines routing tables to understand how packets are forwarded between different network segments.


  • Definition: A widely used networking technology for local area networks (LANs) that defines wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects Ethernet connections and configurations to understand the physical layer topology of the network.

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

  • Definition: A network protocol that prevents loops in bridged or switched networks by dynamically disabling redundant paths.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery analyzes Spanning Tree Protocol configurations to identify and optimize network paths for redundancy and stability.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

  • Definition: A secure, encrypted connection established over a public network (such as the Internet) to enable private communication between remote networks or devices.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects VPN configurations and endpoints to ensure secure communication between remote offices and corporate networks.


  • Definition: A network diagnostic tool used to trace the route taken by packets from the source to the destination, identifying each intermediate hop along the way.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery performs traceroute operations to troubleshoot network connectivity issues and identify routing bottlenecks.


  • Definition: An asynchronous notification sent by a network device to an SNMP manager (such as ServiceNow Discovery) to report significant events or conditions.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery receives SNMP traps from network devices to alert administrators about critical events, such as interface status changes or device failures.

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)

  • Definition: A standardized exterior gateway protocol used to exchange routing information between autonomous systems on the Internet.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery analyzes BGP routing tables to understand how routes are propagated and exchanged between different networks.

MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)

  • Definition: A scalable and efficient packet-switching technology used to direct data packets along predefined paths through a network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies MPLS configurations within the network to understand how traffic is routed across service provider networks.

VRF (Virtual Routing and Forwarding)

  • Definition: A technology that allows multiple instances of a routing table to coexist within the same router, enabling the segmentation of network resources.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery discovers VRF configurations to understand how routing and forwarding decisions are made within virtualized network environments.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

  • Definition: A protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses within a local network segment.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery captures ARP table entries to maintain an accurate mapping of IP addresses to MAC addresses within the local network.

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)

  • Definition: A protocol used by multicast routers to manage membership in multicast groups on a network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery monitors IGMP messages to identify multicast group memberships and multicast routing configurations within the network.

QoS (Quality of Service)

  • Definition: A set of techniques used to manage network resources and ensure a certain level of performance, latency, and reliability for specific applications or traffic types.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery examines QoS policies and configurations to prioritize critical network traffic and optimize application performance.

SSL VPN (Secure Socket Layer Virtual Private Network)

  • Definition: A type of VPN that uses SSL/TLS encryption protocols to provide secure remote access to network resources.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects SSL VPN configurations to ensure secure communication between remote users and corporate networks.

NTP (Network Time Protocol)

  • Definition: A protocol used to synchronize the clocks of network devices within a computer network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery synchronizes device clocks using NTP to ensure accurate timestamping of events and logs within the network.

Port Mirroring

  • Definition: A feature that allows network traffic passing through a switch port to be forwarded to another port for analysis or monitoring purposes.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery configures port mirroring to capture and analyze network traffic for security monitoring and troubleshooting.

DNS Server

  • Definition: A server that translates domain names into IP addresses and vice versa, allowing clients to access network resources using human-readable names.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies DNS servers within the network infrastructure to resolve domain names and maintain DNS configurations.


  • Definition: A standard protocol used to send event messages across IP networks for monitoring, analysis, and troubleshooting purposes.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery collects syslog messages from network devices to monitor system events, security incidents, and performance metrics.


  • Definition: A technology that allows multiple physical Ethernet links to be aggregated into a single logical link for increased bandwidth and redundancy.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects EtherChannel configurations to understand how link aggregation is implemented within the network.

STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) Root Bridge

  • Definition: The designated bridge within a spanning tree topology that serves as the central point of reference for calculating spanning tree paths.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies the STP root bridge to understand the topology and convergence of the spanning tree protocol within the network.

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

  • Definition: A link-state routing protocol used to calculate the shortest path between routers and build a topology database of the entire network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery analyzes OSPF configurations to understand how routes are advertised and exchanged between OSPF-enabled routers.

DNS Zone

  • Definition: A portion of the DNS namespace that is managed by a specific authoritative name server and contains resource records for domain names within that zone.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery discovers DNS zones and zone configurations to understand how domain names are organized and managed within the DNS infrastructure.

Tunneling Protocol

  • Definition: A protocol that encapsulates one network protocol within another network protocol, allowing data to be transmitted across networks that would otherwise be incompatible.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies tunneling protocols such as GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) or IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) for secure communication between networks.

Jumbo Frames

  • Definition: Ethernet frames that exceed the standard maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of 1500 bytes, allowing for larger data payloads to be transmitted more efficiently.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects jumbo frames configurations to optimize network performance and reduce overhead associated with frame fragmentation.

VLAN Trunking

  • Definition: A method of transporting traffic from multiple VLANs across a single physical link between switches, allowing VLAN traffic to be transparently forwarded between devices.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies VLAN trunking configurations to understand how VLAN traffic is transported and tagged across network segments.

IP SLA (Internet Protocol Service Level Agreement)

  • Definition: A feature that allows network administrators to measure network performance metrics such as latency, jitter, and packet loss using simulated traffic.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery configures IP SLA operations to monitor network performance and troubleshoot connectivity issues between devices.

Loopback Interface

  • Definition: A virtual network interface configured on a network device that allows it to communicate with itself for testing and management purposes.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects loopback interface configurations to ensure network devices are reachable and operational within the network infrastructure.

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)

  • Definition: A simple file transfer protocol used to transfer files between devices on a network, typically for bootstrapping network devices or firmware upgrades.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery uses TFTP to transfer configuration files, firmware updates, and other files between network devices.

VLAN Tagging

  • Definition: A method of adding VLAN identification information (tags) to Ethernet frames to distinguish traffic belonging to different VLANs on the same network segment.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies VLAN tagging configurations to segregate and prioritize traffic based on VLAN membership and policies.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)

  • Definition: A technology that enables voice communication and multimedia sessions over the Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery monitors VoIP configurations and devices to ensure quality of service and reliability for voice communications within the network.

SSDP (Simple Service Discovery Protocol)

  • Definition: A network protocol used to discover and advertise network services and devices on a local network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery utilizes SSDP to discover UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) devices and services within the network for inventory and monitoring purposes.

VPN Concentrator

  • Definition: A networking device that aggregates multiple VPN connections from remote clients and establishes secure tunnels to the corporate network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies VPN concentrators to monitor and manage secure remote access to the corporate network.

MAC Address Table

  • Definition: A data structure maintained by network switches that maps MAC addresses to the ports on which corresponding devices are connected.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery queries MAC address tables on switches to understand device connectivity and network topology.

VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

  • Definition: A protocol that provides automatic failover and redundancy for routers by electing a virtual router master from a group of routers.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects VRRP configurations to ensure high availability and fault tolerance for network routing.


  • Definition: A network protocol used for collecting IP traffic information and monitoring network traffic flow in real time.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery collects NetFlow data to analyze network traffic patterns, identify anomalies, and optimize bandwidth usage.

Network Address

  • Definition: A unique numerical identifier assigned to devices on a network for communication purposes.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery retrieves network addresses to map the IP topology and understand device connectivity within the network.

Network Address Translation (NAT)

  • Definition: A method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in IP packet headers.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies NAT configurations to understand how private IP addresses are translated into public IP addresses for external communication.


  • Definition: Variation in the delay of received packets, causing irregularities in packet arrival times.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery measures jitter to assess the quality and stability of voice and video communications over the network.

VoIP Gateway

  • Definition: A device that converts voice signals from analog or digital telephone lines into data packets for transmission over IP networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies VoIP gateways to facilitate the integration and management of voice communication systems within the network.

Remote Access

  • Definition: The ability for users to connect to a corporate network from a remote location using secure communication protocols.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery monitors remote access connections to ensure secure and authorized access to network resources.

Wireless LAN (WLAN)

  • Definition: A type of local area network that uses wireless communication protocols to connect devices and access points.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery discovers and monitors wireless LAN infrastructure, including access points and client devices.

SSID (Service Set Identifier)

  • Definition: A unique identifier used to name a wireless network and distinguish it from other wireless networks in the vicinity.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery scans for SSIDs to identify and map wireless networks within the coverage area.

Channel Bonding

  • Definition: A technique that combines multiple wireless channels to increase bandwidth and improve data transfer rates.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects channel bonding configurations to optimize wireless network performance and reliability.

Inter-VLAN Routing

  • Definition: The process of forwarding traffic between different VLANs using a router or layer 3 switch.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery examines inter-VLAN routing configurations to understand how traffic is routed between virtual LANs within the network.

WAN Optimization

  • Definition: Techniques and technologies used to maximize the efficiency of data transfer and reduce latency across wide area networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies WAN optimization devices and configurations to improve application performance and user experience.

IPsec (Internet Protocol Security)

  • Definition: A suite of protocols used to secure Internet Protocol (IP) communications by encrypting and authenticating data packets.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects IPsec VPN configurations to establish secure tunnels for private communication over public networks.

MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

  • Definition: The largest size of a data packet that can be transmitted over a network medium without fragmentation.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery adjusts MTU settings to optimize data transmission and prevent packet loss and fragmentation.

IP Routing

  • Definition: The process of forwarding IP packets between different networks or subnetworks based on their destination IP addresses.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery analyzes IP routing tables to determine the best paths for forwarding packets between network segments.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

  • Definition: A security system that monitors network traffic for suspicious activity or potential security threats.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery integrates with IDS systems to detect and respond to network intrusions and security breaches.

Access Control List (ACL)

  • Definition: A set of rules or conditions used to filter network traffic based on criteria such as source and destination IP addresses, ports, and protocols.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery examines ACL configurations to enforce network security policies and control traffic flow.

Wireless Mesh Network

  • Definition: A network topology where individual devices (nodes) communicate with each other to relay data and extend network coverage.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies wireless mesh network deployments to understand the interconnectedness and coverage of wireless infrastructure.

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)

  • Definition: A wireless technology that uses multiple antennas to transmit and receive data simultaneously, improving the throughput and reliability of wireless communication.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects MIMO configurations to optimize wireless network performance and coverage.

VoIP Codec (Coder-Decoder)

  • Definition: A software or hardware algorithm used to compress and decompress audio signals for transmission over IP networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies VoIP codecs used for voice compression and transmission to ensure compatibility and quality of voice calls.

GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation)

  • Definition: A tunneling protocol used to encapsulate and transport network layer packets over IP networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects GRE tunnels configured to create virtual private networks (VPNs) or establish point-to-point connections between network devices.

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)

  • Definition: A tunneling protocol used to encapsulate and transmit data packets over the Internet or other IP networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies L2TP configurations used for secure remote access and site-to-site VPN connections.

802.1X Authentication

  • Definition: An IEEE standard for port-based network access control that provides authentication and authorization for devices connecting to a network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects 802.1X authentication configurations to enforce network security policies and restrict unauthorized access to network resources.

IGMP Snooping (Internet Group Management Protocol Snooping)

  • Definition: A feature that listens to Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) messages to manage multicast traffic efficiently within a switched network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery enables IGMP snooping to optimize multicast traffic distribution and reduce unnecessary traffic flooding within VLANs.

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service)

  • Definition: A networking protocol that provides centralized authentication, authorization, and accounting management for users attempting to access a network.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery integrates with RADIUS servers to authenticate and authorize users connecting to wireless networks or remote access services.

TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus)

  • Definition: A security protocol used for centralized authentication, authorization, and accounting management in network devices.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery supports TACACS+ for secure access control and auditing of administrative access to network devices.

802.11 Standards

  • Definition: A set of IEEE standards that define wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies and protocols, including variations such as 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac, and 802.11ax.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies and supports different 802.11 standards to ensure compatibility and optimal performance of wireless networks.

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)

  • Definition: An outdated security protocol used to secure wireless networks by encrypting data transmitted between wireless devices and access points.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects WEP configurations to identify potential security vulnerabilities and recommend stronger encryption methods.

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)

    • Definition: A security protocol designed to secure wireless networks by providing stronger encryption and authentication mechanisms compared to WEP.Example: ServiceNow Discovery supports WPA configurations to enhance the security of wireless networks and protect against unauthorized access.

WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2)

  • Definition: An improved version of the WPA standard that provides stronger encryption and security features for wireless networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects and recommends the use of WPA2 for securing wireless networks and preventing unauthorized access.

WPA3 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 3)

  • Definition: The latest iteration of the WPA standard, offering enhanced security features and protection against security vulnerabilities found in previous versions.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery monitors and supports WPA3 implementations to ensure the highest level of security for wireless networks.

802.1Q VLAN Tagging

  • Definition: A method of tagging Ethernet frames with VLAN information to identify and segregate traffic belonging to different VLANs on trunk links.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery configures 802.1Q VLAN tagging to segment and prioritize network traffic based on VLAN membership and policies.

IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation (LACP)

  • Definition: A standard for combining multiple physical Ethernet links into a single logical link to increase bandwidth and provide redundancy.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects IEEE 802.3ad configurations to optimize network performance and ensure high availability of network connections.

HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol)

  • Definition: A Cisco proprietary redundancy protocol that provides high availability by allowing multiple routers to work together as a virtual router with a single IP address.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery identifies HSRP configurations to ensure failover and redundancy for critical network routing.

VLAN Hopping

  • Definition: A security vulnerability where an attacker gains unauthorized access to traffic on different VLANs by exploiting weaknesses in switch configuration or VLAN trunking protocols.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects and mitigates VLAN hopping attacks by implementing proper VLAN segmentation and access controls.

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

  • Definition: A Cisco proprietary routing protocol used for exchanging routing information within an autonomous system.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery analyzes EIGRP configurations to understand how routes are propagated and managed within Cisco networks.

OSPF Areas (Open Shortest Path First Areas)

  • Definition: A logical grouping of OSPF routers and networks to improve scalability and reduce routing table size in large OSPF networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery organizes OSPF routers and networks into OSPF areas to optimize routing efficiency and resource utilization.

Wireless Spectrum Analysis

  • Definition: The process of analyzing the radio frequency spectrum to identify sources of interference and optimize wireless network performance.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery performs wireless spectrum analysis to detect and mitigate interference from other wireless devices and sources.

Rogue Access Point

  • Definition: An unauthorized wireless access point connected to a network without authorization, posing a security risk and potential entry point for attackers.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery detects and identifies rogue access points to prevent unauthorized access and maintain network security.

DHCP Relay Agent

  • Definition: A network device or software function that forwards DHCP requests and responses between DHCP clients and DHCP servers across different network segments.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery configures DHCP relay agents to facilitate dynamic IP address allocation across multiple network segments.

IPv4 Address Exhaustion

  • Definition: The depletion of available IPv4 addresses due to the exponential growth of internet-connected devices and the limited address space of IPv4.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery addresses IPv4 address exhaustion by implementing IPv6 adoption strategies and transitioning to IPv6-enabled networks.

Virtual IP Address (VIP)

  • Definition: An IP address that is not associated with a specific physical network interface but is assigned to a virtual network resource or service.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery assigns virtual IP addresses to load balancers and high availability services to provide fault tolerance and scalability.

Route Redistribution

  • Definition: The process of sharing routing information between different routing protocols to enable communication and route convergence across heterogeneous networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery performs route redistribution to facilitate seamless communication between networks using different routing protocols.

BGP Peering

  • Definition: The establishment of BGP sessions between neighboring routers to exchange routing information and make routing decisions across autonomous systems.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery configures BGP peering relationships to enable dynamic routing and internet connectivity for autonomous networks.

Q-in-Q Tunneling (Double VLAN Tagging)

  • Definition: A technique for encapsulating VLAN-tagged Ethernet frames within additional VLAN tags to extend VLAN networks across service provider networks.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery implements Q-in-Q tunneling to enable VLAN transparency and seamless communication across interconnected networks.

Wireless Site Survey

  • Definition: A methodical assessment of wireless network coverage, signal strength, and interference levels within a physical area to optimize wireless network deployment and performance.
  • Example: ServiceNow Discovery conducts wireless site

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